By Elizabeth Lopatto December 04, 2013
People with early signs of multiple sclerosis who were treated with a vaccine used to prevent tuberculosis were less likely to get sick than patients who weren?t vaccinated, according to an early study.Researchers recruited 73 people who had a first episode suggestive of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease that can be difficult to diagnose. Five years later, almost 60 percent of those given the TB vaccine hadn?t developed multiple sclerosis compared with a third of the group that received a placebo instead, according to a study today in the journal Neurology.
The research supports the hygiene hypothesis, which suggests people have become so clean they suppress natural development of the immune system, leading to a surge in diseases in which these infection-fighting cells attack healthy tissue in the body, said Dennis Bourdette, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study. The tuberculosis vaccine may wake the regulatory arm of the immune system, helping to steer the body?s killer cells away from the neurons it attacks in MS.About 2.3 million people worldwide have multiple sclerosis, according to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, a patient advocacy group. The disease destroys neurons when the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective coating on nerve fibers, disrupting the body?s communications. Eventually, this leads to blurred vision, poor balance and coordination, problems with speaking, tremors, fatigue and paralysis.
When your mom told you to stop scarfing down your food, she knew what she was talking about. New research has found that chewing your food more leads to a lower calorie intake.
Researchers from Iowa State University found that increasing the amount of times you chew your food can lower the amount of calories you consume. The study, which was published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, serves as further support that slower eaters have healthier body weights.
“The study reinforces the benefits of taking time to chew food well and enjoy the variety of textures and flavors in our meals,” Constance Brown-Riggs of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics said.
During the study, researchers chose participants who were of normal weight, overweight and obese. They asked each participants to consume five portions of pizza rolls and asked how many times they chewed each bite. During one session, participants were told to continue eating until they were full, chewing food the same amount of times they did during the first session. In another session, they were told to double the amount of times they chewed.
When chewing increased, participants ate slightly less, thus consuming less calories.
“Increasing the number of chewing cycles before swallowing can reduce food intake and increase satiety,” said James Hollis, co-author of the study. “However, it is not clear if this is a practical approach to weight management.”
One reasoning for the study’s results, is slower eaters give time for their stomachs to realize they are full.
“It takes about 20 minutes for the brain to signal your stomach that you’re full,” Brown-Riggs said. “Fast eaters can consume a large amount of food within that 20-minute period resulting in more calories, which can lead to overweight or obesity. This may be why participants in this study reduced their food intake. Increasing the number of chews increased the meal duration.”
(By Marissa Brassfield for CalorieLab)
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